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  • CLASSES

    Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

    BOXED WARNING

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of nabumetone can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or GI bleeding, which can occur at any time and often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, it is relatively contraindicated in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increased frequency of adverse reactions. Other patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, or anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, elderly patients, and patients with alcoholism. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding (see Adverse Reactions). Consider alternative therapies to NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, tachycardia, thromboembolism

    Nabumetone, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate hypertension and congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering nabumetone to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., tachycardia), significant coronary artery disease (including acute myocardial infarction, angina, or history of myocardial infarction), peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Fluid retention, angina pectoris, chest pain (unspecified), pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis, and peripheral edema have occurred. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Closely monitor blood pressure during nabumetone receipt. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular thrombotic event.

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

    Nabumetone is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke was found through analysis of data regarding the use of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days after CABG surgery.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    NSAID of the acetic acid chemical class; requires conversion to active metabolite for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity; causes an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse effects; may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular events; use lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration; once daily administration.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Relafen, Relafen DS

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Nabumetone/Relafen/Relafen DS Oral Tab: 500mg, 750mg, 1000mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the acute and chronic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 1000 mg PO once daily or 500 mg PO twice daily. Adjust according to patient response. The lowest effective dose of nabumetone should be sought for each patient. Maximum dose is 2000 mg/day. NOTE: Patients weighing less than 50 kg may be less likely to require dosages beyond 1000 mg/day.

    For the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    In one trial, 42 patients received either indomethacin 50 mg three times daily or nabumetone 1000 mg twice daily for 3 months in a double-blind manner. Both groups had subjective improvement in pain and morning stiffness over baseline. Subjective measures of spinal movements were similar between the groups.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    2000 mg/day PO.

    Elderly

    2000 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Although specific guidelines are not available, dosage reduction may be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl >= 50 ml/min: No dosage adjustment needed.
    CrCl 31—49 ml/min: Initially, 750 mg PO once daily. Maximum dose is 1500 mg/day. Monitor SCr and BUN concentrations at baseline and within weeks of starting therapy. If renal dysfunction worsens, discontinuation of nabumetone may be warranted.
    CrCl < 30 ml/min: Initially, 500 mg PO once daily. Maximum dose is 1000 mg/day. Monitor SCr and BUN concentrations at baseline and within weeks of starting therapy. If renal dysfunction worsens, discontinuation of nabumetone may be warranted.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Nabumetone may be administered orally without regard to meals.

    STORAGE

    Relafen:
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F
    Relafen DS:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Acute bronchospasm, asthma, nasal polyps, NSAID hypersensitivity, salicylate hypersensitivity, urticaria

    Nabumetone is contraindicated in patients with salicylate hypersensitivity or NSAID hypersensitivity who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or other allergic reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactoid reactions to nabumetone have been reported in such patients. Nabumetone should not be used in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma or the aspirin triad because of the approximate 5% cross-sensitivity that occurs between aspirin and NSAIDs. The triad typically occurs in patients with asthma who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps or who experience severe, potentially fatal, acute bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs.

    Alcoholism, anticoagulant therapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, GI bleeding, GI disease, GI perforation, peptic ulcer disease, tobacco smoking, ulcerative colitis

    Chronic use of nabumetone can result in gastritis, ulceration with or without GI perforation, and/or GI bleeding, which can occur at any time and often without preceding symptoms. Therefore, it is relatively contraindicated in patients with a history of or active GI disease including peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. It is recommended not to initiate therapy with maximum doses in these patients due to the likely increased frequency of adverse reactions. Other patients at increased risk for NSAID-induced GI bleeding include those receiving concurrent myelosuppressive chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy, or anticoagulant therapy, tobacco smoking patients, elderly patients, and patients with alcoholism. All patients receiving prolonged treatment should be routinely monitored for potential GI ulceration and bleeding (see Adverse Reactions). Consider alternative therapies to NSAIDs for high risk patients.

    Bone marrow suppression, coagulopathy, hematological disease, hemophilia, immunosuppression, neutropenia, surgery, thrombocytopenia

    Nabumetone should be used cautiously in patients with preexisting hematological disease (e.g., coagulopathy or hemophilia) or thrombocytopenia due to the effect of the drug on platelet function and vascular response to bleeding. Nabumetone should also be used with caution in patients undergoing surgery when a high degree of hemostasis is required. NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients with immunosuppression or neutropenia. NSAIDs may mask the signs of infection such as fever or pain in patients with bone marrow suppression.

    Anemia

    Anemia may be exacerbated with the use of systemic NSAIDs (such as nabumetone). This may be due to fluid retention, GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythrogenesis. Patients who have initial hemoglobin values of 10 g/dl or less and who are to receive long-term NSAID therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.

    Dental disease, dental work

    Use of nabumetone may cause increased bleeding in patients with dental disease. Patients should inform their dentist they are taking nabumetone prior to any dental work due to a potential increased risk of bleeding. Patients should be instructed on proper oral hygiene.

    Intramuscular injections

    Intramuscular injections should be administered cautiously to patients receiving nabumetone. IM injections may cause bleeding, bruising, or hematomas due to platelet effects secondary to nabumetone therapy.

    Hepatic disease, jaundice

    Nabumetone should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease. Severe hepatic reactions have occurred during treatment with nabumetone, and patients with hepatic impairment are at an increased risk for developing these complications. Conversion of nabumetone to the active drug (6-MNA) and metabolism of 6-MNA to inactive metabolites requires hepatic functioning; however, specific dosage adjustment guidelines are not available. Nabumetone should be discontinued if elevated hepatic enzymes persist or worsen or if signs or symptoms of hepatic disease such as jaundice develop (see Adverse Reactions).

    Dehydration, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, hypertension, hypovolemia, peripheral edema, renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    NSAIDs, including nabumetone, decrease prostaglandin synthesis, which can cause renal blood flow reduction in patients who utilize prostaglandins to support renal blood flow. Due to the role of prostaglandins in renal function and hemodynamics, patients with renal disease should be closely observed during therapy with nabumetone due to an increased risk for adverse reactions (e.g., increased blood pressure) during treatment. Nabumetone and its metabolites are renally excreted. Accumulation of parent drug and metabolites can occur in patients with renal impairment or renal failure, which can increase the risk of toxicity. Dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (see Dosage). No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of nabumetone in patients with advanced renal disease; nabumetone receipt is not recommended in patients with advanced renal disease. If nabumetone therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable. In patients with an estimated creatinine clearance below 50 ml/min, monitoring of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) should be performed at baseline and within weeks of starting therapy. Further tests should be carried out as necessary; if renal dysfunction worsens, discontinuation of nabumetone therapy may be warranted. Conditions such as congestive heart failure, peripheral edema, or hypertension can be exacerbated with nabumetone. Dosage adjustment may be necessary. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that the effect of NSAIDs on blood pressure is the greatest in hypertensive individuals receiving antihypertensive medication. In addition, normotensive patients receiving antihypertensive therapy had higher increases in blood pressure than subjects with uncontrolled hypertension or normotensive subjects receiving no hypertensive therapy. Patients with renal impairment, renal failure, hepatic disease, diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, edema, extracellular volume depletion (i.e., hypovolemia or dehydration), sepsis; those taking diuretics or nephrotoxic drugs; and the elderly are at the highest risk for complications related to suboptimal renal perfusion. Closely monitor blood pressure during the initiation of and continuation of nabumetone receipt. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is typically followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

    Children

    Safety and effectiveness of nabumetone in children have not been established.

    Pregnancy

    Avoid nabumetone use during the third trimester of pregnancy (starting at 30 weeks of gestation) due to the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate. If NSAID treatment is deemed necessary between 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy, limit use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if NSAID treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue the NSAID if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice. Use of NSAIDs around 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some postmarketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required. Observational data regarding embryofetal risks of NSAID use during the first trimester is inconclusive. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of nabumetone in pregnant women.

    Breast-feeding

    It is not known whether nabumetone is excreted in human milk. The principal active metabolite of nabumetone, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-feeding infants from nabumetone, discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue nabumetone, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.[64659] Alternative analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding by previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam.[27500]

    Acute myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, tachycardia, thromboembolism

    Nabumetone, like all NSAIDs, may exacerbate hypertension and congestive heart failure and may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. The FDA has warned that the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke can occur as early as the first weeks of using a NSAID, and risk may increase with higher doses and longer duration of use. Data demonstrate that patients treated with NSAIDs were more likely to die in the first year following a myocardial infarction compared to those not treated with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may increase the risk of a cardiovascular thrombotic event in patients with or without underlying heart disease or risk factors for heart disease. Patients with known heart disease or risk factors appear to have a greater likelihood of an event following NSAID use, likely due to a higher baseline risk. Current evidence is insufficient to determine if the risk of an event is higher or lower for any particular NSAID compared to other NSAIDs. There is an increased risk of heart failure with NSAID use. Caution is recommended when administering nabumetone to patients with cardiac disease, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias (e.g., tachycardia), significant coronary artery disease (including acute myocardial infarction, angina, or history of myocardial infarction), peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), hypertension, pre-existing renal disease, or fluid retention. Fluid retention, angina pectoris, chest pain (unspecified), pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis, and peripheral edema have occurred. In addition, clinical practice guidelines state NSAIDs should not be administered to patients presenting with and hospitalized for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to increased risk of mortality, reinfarction, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial rupture associated with their use. Closely monitor blood pressure during nabumetone receipt. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible to minimize the potential risk for an adverse cardiovascular event. Inform patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any signs or symptoms of a cardiovascular thrombotic event.

    Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

    Nabumetone is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke was found through analysis of data regarding the use of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days after CABG surgery.

    Geriatric

    As with any systemic NSAID, use of nabumetone in the geriatric patient should be approached with caution. The elderly and debilitated are typically at the highest risk for developing complications related to NSAID therapy, such as GI ulceration, fluid retention, cardiovascular side effects, and reduced renal perfusion. According to the Beers Criteria, NSAIDs are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for use in geriatric patients. NSAIDs may cause new or worsening gastric and duodenal ulcers, and there is an increased risk of GI bleeding and peptic ulcer disease in those above 75 years of age, or those taking oral or parenteral corticosteroids, anticoagulants, or antiplatelet medications. The risk of ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation is cumulative with continued use. Avoid the chronic use of systemic NSAIDs in high-risk geriatric patients, unless other alternatives are not effective and the patient can take a gastroprotective agent. Avoid use in patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers unless other alternatives are not effective, and the patient can take a gastroprotective agent. The use of a gastroprotective agent, like a proton pump inhibitor or misoprostol, reduces but does not eliminate GI risks. NSAIDs may also increase blood pressure and induce kidney injury. The Beers Panel recommends avoiding NSAIDs in geriatric patients with the following conditions due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: symptomatic heart failure or chronic kidney disease Stage 4 or higher (CrCl less than 30 mL/minute) (acute kidney injury, further decline of renal function). Use caution in patients with asymptomatic heart failure.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs); NSAIDs should be reserved for symptoms and inflammatory conditions for which lower risk analgesics (e.g., acetaminophen) have either failed or are not clinically indicated. NSAIDs may cause GI bleeding in patients with a prior history of, or with increased risk for, GI bleeding. Also, NSAIDs may cause or worsen renal failure, increase blood pressure, or exacerbate heart failure.[60742]

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    NSAIDs, such as nabumetone, may pose a reproductive risk by delaying or preventing prostaglandin-mediated rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility. Small studies of women treated with NSAIDs demonstrated a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing infertility evaluation.[35893]

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    GI bleeding / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pseudoporphyria / Delayed / 0-1.0
    angioedema / Rapid / 0-1.0
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / 0-1.0
    eosinophilic pneumonia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    erythema multiforme / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatic failure / Delayed / 0-1.0
    nephrotic syndrome / Delayed / 0-1.0
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    azotemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    interstitial nephritis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    visual impairment / Early / 0-1.0
    aseptic meningitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / 0-1.0
    vasculitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    peptic ulcer / Delayed / 0.8-0.8
    GI perforation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal stricture / Delayed / Incidence not known
    odynophagia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    esophageal ulceration / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    oliguria / Early / Incidence not known
    renal papillary necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    proteinuria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    aplastic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hemolytic anemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stroke / Early / Incidence not known
    thromboembolism / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 3.0-9.0
    edema / Delayed / 3.0-9.0
    gastritis / Delayed / 1.0-3.0
    stomatitis / Delayed / 1.0-3.0
    melena / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hypokalemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    glossitis / Early / 0-1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    bullous rash / Early / 0-1.0
    pneumonitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    jaundice / Delayed / 0-1.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 0-1.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    depression / Delayed / 0-1.0
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dysuria / Early / 0-1.0
    vaginal bleeding / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hematuria / Delayed / 0-1.0
    nephrolithiasis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperuricemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    leukopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 0-1.0
    hypertension / Early / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    angina / Early / 0-1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-1.0
    esophagitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cystitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    platelet dysfunction / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neutropenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    diarrhea / Early / 14.0-14.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 13.0-13.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 12.0-12.0
    nausea / Early / 3.0-9.0
    flatulence / Early / 3.0-9.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 3.0-9.0
    rash / Early / 3.0-9.0
    headache / Early / 3.0-9.0
    dizziness / Early / 3.0-9.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 3.0-9.0
    vomiting / Early / 1.0-3.0
    xerostomia / Early / 1.0-3.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 1.0-3.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0-3.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0-3.0
    weight gain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 0-1.0
    weight loss / Delayed / 0-1.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    eructation / Early / 0-1.0
    appetite stimulation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    gingivitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    acne vulgaris / Delayed / 0-1.0
    photosensitivity / Delayed / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    alopecia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vertigo / Early / 0-1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-1.0
    nightmares / Early / 0-1.0
    malaise / Early / 0-1.0
    tremor / Early / 0-1.0
    agitation / Early / 0-1.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 0-1.0
    asthenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    cough / Delayed / 0-1.0
    chills / Rapid / 0-1.0
    fever / Early / 0-1.0
    pyrosis (heartburn) / Early / Incidence not known
    polyuria / Early / Incidence not known
    purpura / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abciximab: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Acetohexamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Acyclovir: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function during coadministration of acyclovir and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Coadministration may increase the risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Adefovir: (Moderate) Chronic coadministration of adefovir with nephrotoxic drugs, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity even in patients who have normal renal function. The use of adefovir with NSAIDs may be done cautiously. As stated in the current adefovir prescribing information, 'Ibuprofen (800 mg PO three times daily), when given concomitantly with adefovir dipivoxil, increased the adefovir Cmax by 33% and AUC by 23%, as well as urinary recovery. The increase appears to be due to higher oral bioavailability, not a reduction in renal clearance of adefovir.' In an in vitro investigation, the antiviral effect of adefovir was unaltered and the renal proximal tubule accumulation of adefovir was inhibited by the presence of a NSAID. Adefovir is efficiently transported by the human renal organic anion transporter 1, and the presence of this transporter appears to mediate the accumulation of the drug in renal proximal tubules. The in vitro study suggests that the use of a NSAID with adefovir may potentially reduce the nephrotoxic potential of adefovir. Of course, NSAIDs are associated with nephrotoxicity of their own; therefore, further data on the interaction between NSAIDs and adefovir in humans are needed.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Major) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may cause nephrotoxicity. Concurrent administration of drugs possessing nephrotoxic effects, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), with Aldesleukin, IL-2 may increase the risk of kidney dysfunction. In addition, reduced kidney function secondary to Aldesleukin, IL-2 treatment may delay elimination of concomitant medications and increase the risk of adverse events from those drugs.
    Alendronate: (Minor) Monitor for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of alendronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients.
    Alendronate; Cholecalciferol: (Minor) Monitor for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of alendronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients.
    Aliskiren: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible. (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Alpha-blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Alteplase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Altretamine: (Major) Altretamine causes mild to moderate dose-related myelosuppression. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of altretamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as amikacin.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Aminolevulinic Acid: (Moderate) Agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of NSAIDs before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of celecoxib with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Moderate) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Moderate) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Moderate) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Amphotericin B: (Moderate) Concurrent use of amphotericin B and other nephrotoxic medications, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may enhance the potential for drug-induced renal toxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy. Amphotericin B dosage reduction may be necessary if renal impairment occurs.
    Anagrelide: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Antithrombin III: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Apixaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Aprotinin: (Moderate) The manufacturer recommends using aprotinin cautiously in patients that are receiving drugs that can affect renal function, such as NSAIDs, as the risk of renal impairment may be increased.
    Argatroban: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity. (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Azathioprine: (Moderate) NSAIDs should be used with caution in patients receiving immunosuppressives as they may mask fever, pain, swelling and other signs and symptoms of an infection.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Azilsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Bacitracin: (Major) Avoid concurrent use of bacitracin with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Coadministration may increase the risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Benazepril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Betrixaban: (Major) Monitor patients closely and promptly evaluate any signs or symptoms of bleeding if betrixaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used concomitantly. Coadministration of betrixaban and NSAIDs may increase the risk of bleeding.
    Bictegravir; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Bivalirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of meloxicam with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Busulfan: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of busulfan, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Minor) Monitor for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of risedronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients.
    Calcium Phosphate, Supersaturated: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Calcium-channel blockers: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Candesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Capreomycin: (Major) Because capreomycin is primarily eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase serum concentrations of either drug. Theoretically, the chronic coadministration of these drugs may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered.
    Captopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Carmustine, BCNU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of carmustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. These additive effects may not occur for at least 6 weeks after the administration of carmustine due to the delayed myelosuppressive effects of carmustine.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Cefotaxime: (Minor) Cefotaxime's product label states that cephalosporins may potentiate the adverse renal effects of nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and loop diuretics. Carefully monitor renal function, especially during prolonged therapy or use of high aminoglycoside doses. The majority of reported cases involve the combination of aminoglycosides and cephalothin or cephaloridine, which are associated with dose-related nephrotoxicity as singular agents. Limited but conflicting data with other cephalosporins have been noted.
    Celecoxib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of celecoxib with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of celecoxib with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Chlorambucil: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of chlorambucil, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Chlorpropamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Cholinesterase inhibitors: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cidofovir: (Contraindicated) The concomitant administration of cidofovir and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is contraindicated due to the potential for increased nephrotoxicity. NSAIDs should be discontinued 7 days prior to beginning cidofovir.
    Cilostazol: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Cladribine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cladribine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clofarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of clofarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Colistin: (Major) The administration of colistimethate sodium may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since colistimethate sodium is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Serum creatinine ,potassium concentrations, and cyclosporine concentrations should be closely monitored when systemic cyclosporine is given with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Renal dysfunction associated with cyclosporine may be potentiated by concurrent usage of NSAIDs. The effects of NSAIDs on the production of renal prostaglandins may cause changes in the elimination of cyclosporine. Potentiation of renal dysfunction may especially occur in a dehydrated patient. Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of cyclosporine toxicity and infection, as NSAIDs may mask fever, pain, or swelling. Increased tear production was not seen in patients receiving ophthalmic NSAIDs or using punctual plugs concurrently with cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion.
    Cytarabine, ARA-C: (Major) The main toxic effect of cytarabine, ARA-C is bone marrow suppression with leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of cytarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Dipyridamole can block membrane transport of cytarabine in tumor cells, therefore decreasing its antineoplastic activity.
    Dabigatran: (Major) Educate patients about the signs of increased bleeding and the need to report these signs to a healthcare provider immediately if coadministration of dabigatran and a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) is necessary. Dabigatran can cause significant and, sometimes, fatal bleeding. This risk may be increased by concurrent use of chronic NSAID therapy.
    Dacarbazine, DTIC: (Major) Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common toxicities of dacarbazine, DTIC. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of dacarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Dalteparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Dasatinib: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic and possible platelet inhibiting effects of dasatinib, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Caution should be exercised if patients are required to take medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants concomitantly with dasatinib.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Because gastric ulceration and GI bleeding have been reported in patients taking deferasirox, use caution when coadministering with other drugs known to increase the risk of peptic ulcers or gastric hemorrhage including NSAIDs. In addition, coadministration of deferasirox with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including NSAIDs, may increase the acute renal failure. Monitor serum creatinine and/or creatinine clearance in patients who are receiving deferasirox and nephrotoxic drugs concomitantly
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Desirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with hyponatremia including NSAIDs. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia. A woman who took both desmopressin and ibuprofen was found in a comatose state. As her serum sodium concentration was 121 mmol/L, and her plasma osmolality was low in the presence of a high-normal urine osmolality and normal sodium excretion, she was treated with fluid restriction. Her serum sodium concentration was 124 mmol/L within a day and was 135 mmol/L by the second day. The woman had previously received desmopressin without the development of clinical symptoms of hyponatremia
    Desvenlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by desvenlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking desvenlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Diclofenac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diclofenac with any other NSAID due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diflunisal: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of diflunisal with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with digoxin may result in increased serum concentrations of digoxin. NSAIDs may cause a significant deterioration in renal function. A decline in glomerular filtration or tubular secretion may impair the excretion of digoxin. Monitor patients during concomitant treatment for possible digoxin toxicity and reduce digoxin dose as necessary.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Docetaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of docetaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors (including aspirin), strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Doravirine; Lamivudine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Doxazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Drospirenone: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Other drugs that may have additive effects on serum potassium with drospirenone include chronic treatment with NSAIDs, and monitoring of serum potassium in the 1st month of concurrent therapy is recommended.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant duloxetine and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Edoxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Edrophonium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Eltrombopag: (Moderate) Eltrombopag is a UDP-glucuronyltransferase inhibitor. NSAIDs are a substrate of UDP-glucuronyltransferases. The significance or effect of this interaction is not known; however, elevated concentrations of the NSAID are possible. Monitor patients for adverse reactions if eltrombopag is administered with an NSAID.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Emtricitabine: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) or emtricitabine-related adverse events during concomitant use. Concomitant use may increase NSAID or emtricitabine concentrations. Coadministration of drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion, such as NSAIDs and emtricitabine, may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Enoxaparin: (Major) Whenever possible, discontinue agents which may enhance the risk of hemorrhage, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, before initiation of enoxaparin therapy. If coadministration is essential, conduct close clinical and laboratory monitoring.
    Entecavir: (Moderate) The manufacturer of entecavir recommends monitoring for adverse effects when coadministered with NSAIDs. Entecavir is primarily eliminated by the kidneys; NSAIDs can affect renal function. Concurrent administration may increase the serum concentrations of entecavir and adverse events.
    Eplerenone: (Major) Monitor serum potassium and serum creatinine concentrations within 3 to 7 days of initiating coadministration of eplerenone and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and monitor blood pressure. The concomitant use of other potassium-sparing antihypertensives with NSAIDs has been shown to reduce the antihypertensive effect in some patients and result in severe hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function. Patients who develop hyperkalemia may continue eplerenone with proper dose adjustment; eplerenone dose reduction decreases potassium concentrations.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Eprosartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Eptifibatide: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Erlotinib: (Moderate) Monitor for symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation (e.g., severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting) if coadministration of erlotinib with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is necessary. Permanently discontinue erlotinib in patients who develop GI perforation. The pooled incidence of GI perforation clinical trials of erlotinib ranged from 0.1% to 0.4%, including fatal cases. Patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs may be at increased risk of perforation.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Ethanol: (Major) Advise patients to avoid alcohol and alcohol-containing products while taking NSAIDs. Concomitant ingestion of alcohol with NSAIDs increases the risk of developing gastric irritation and GI mucosal bleeding. Alcohol is a mucosal irritant and NSAIDs decrease platelet aggregation. Routine ingestion of alcohol and NSAIDs can cause significant GI bleeding, which may or may not be overt. Even occasional concomitant use of NSAIDs and alcohol should be avoided. Chronic alcohol ingestion is often associated with hypoprothrombinemia and this condition increases the risk of bleeding.
    Ethiodized Oil: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Etidronate: (Minor) Monitor for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of etidronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients.
    Etodolac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of etodolac with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Fenoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of fenoprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Flavocoxid, Flavocoxid; Citrated Zinc Bisglycinate: (Major) Flavocoxid exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs. Additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential for additive adverse cardiac and GI effects, may be seen if flavocoxid is used with NSAIDs. In general, the concurrent use of flavocoxid and NSAIDs should be avoided.
    Floxuridine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of floxuridine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluorouracil, 5-FU: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of fluorouracil, 5-FU, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Flurbiprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of flurbiprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Fondaparinux: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Foscarnet: (Minor) The risk of renal toxicity may be increased if foscarnet is used in conjuction with other nephrotoxic agents, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Fosinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Ganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with ganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully if concomitant therapy is required.
    Garlic, Allium sativum: (Minor) Garlic, Allium sativum may produce clinically-significant antiplatelet effects; until more data are available, garlic should be used cautiously in patients receiving drugs with a known potential risk for bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gentamicin.
    Ginger, Zingiber officinale: (Minor) Patients receiving regular therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should use ginger with caution, due to a theoretical risk of bleeding resulting from additive pharmacology related to the COX enzymes. However, clinical documentation of interactions is lacking. Several pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are reported to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) induced platelet activation in human whole blood. The constituent (8)-paradol is the most potent inhibitor of COX-1 and exhibits the greatest anti-platelet activity versus other gingerol analogues. The mechanism of ginger-associated platelet inhibition may be related to decreased COX-1/Thomboxane synthase enzymatic activity.
    Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba: (Moderate) Monitor for signs or symptoms of bleeding with coadministration of ginkgo biloba and NSAIDs as an increased bleeding risk may occur. Although data are mixed, ginkgo biloba is reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and several case reports describe bleeding complications with ginkgo biloba, with or without concomitant drug therapy.
    Glimepiride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Gold: (Moderate) Due to the inhibition of renal prostaglandins by NSAIDs, concurrent use with other nephrotoxic agents, such as gold compounds, may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor renal function carefully during concurrent therapy.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Heparin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Ibandronate: (Moderate) Monitor renal function and for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of intravenous or oral ibandronate, respectively, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Acute renal failure has been observed with intravenous ibandronate and concomitant use of other nephrotoxic agents may increase this risk. Additionally, the oral formulations of both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Major) During and after therapy, avoid the concomitant use of Yttrium (Y)-90 ibrutumomab tiuxetan with drugs that interfere with platelet function such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); the risk of bleeding may be increased. If coadministration with NSAIDs is necessary, monitor platelet counts more frequently for evidence of thrombocytopenia.
    Ibuprofen lysine: (Major) Because ibuprofen lysine exerts similar pharmacologic characteristics to other systemic NSAIDs, including COX-2 inhibitors, additive pharmacodynamic effects, including a potential increase for additive adverse GI effects, may be seen if ibuprofen lysine is used with other NSAIDs. In general, concurrent use of ibuprofen lysine and another NSAID should be avoided.
    Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Famotidine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ibuprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Immune Globulin IV, IVIG, IGIV: (Moderate) Immune Globulin (IG) products have been reported to be associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death. Patients predisposed to acute renal failure include patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates. Coadminister IG products at the minimum concentration available and the minimum rate of infusion practicable. Also, closely monitor renal function.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Indomethacin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of indomethacin with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Inotersen: (Moderate) Use caution with concomitant use of inotersen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to the risk of glomerulonephritis and nephrotoxicity as well as the potential risk of bleeding from thrombocytopenia. Consider discontinuation of NSAIDs in a patient taking inotersen with a platelet count of less than 50,000 per microliter.
    Iodipamide Meglumine: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iodixanol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iohexol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iomeprol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopamidol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Iopromide: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioversol: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Ioxaglate Meglumine; Ioxaglate Sodium: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Irbesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Isosulfan Blue: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Kanamycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as kanamycin.
    Ketoprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of ketoprofen with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Ketorolac: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of ketorolac with another NSAID is contraindicated. Increased adverse gastrointestinal effects are possible if ketorolac is used with other systemic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including COX-2 inhibitors.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Leflunomide: (Moderate) In vitro studies indicate that the M1 metabolite of leflunomide inhibits cytochrome P450 2C9, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many NSAIDs. Leflunomide altered protein binding and thus, increased the free fraction of ibuprofen by 13% to 50%. The clinical significance of the interactions with NSAIDs is unknown. There was extensive concomitant use of NSAIDs in phase III clinical studies of leflunomide in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and no clinical differential effects were observed. However, because some NSAIDs have been reported to cause hepatotoxic effects, some caution may be warranted in their use with leflunomide.
    Lepirudin: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by SNRIs such as levomilnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking levomilnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Lisinopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Monitor serum lithium concentrations during concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) use; reduce the lithium dose based on serum lithium concentrations and clinical response. NSAIDs decrease renal blood flow, resulting in decreased renal clearance and increased serum lithium concentrations.
    Lomustine, CCNU: (Major) Due to the bone marrow suppressive and thrombocytopenic effects of lomustine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Losartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin with drugs that directly affect pituitary growth hormone secretion, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Healthcare providers are advised to discontinue NSAID therapy and observe a sufficient washout period before administering macimorelin. Use of these medications together may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Mannitol: (Major) Avoid use of mannitol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), if possible. If use together is necessary, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Concomitant administration of nephrotoxic drugs, such as NSAIDs, increases the risk of renal failure after administration of mannitol. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Mecamylamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mechlorethamine, Nitrogen Mustard: (Major) Mechlorethamine, nitrogen mustard is highly toxic and is associated with lymphocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mechlorethamine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of meclofenamate sodium with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of mefenamic acid with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Meloxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of meloxicam with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Mesalamine, 5-ASA: (Minor) The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity.
    Methenamine; Sodium Salicylate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Methotrexate: (Major) Do not administer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) before or concomitantly with high doses of methotrexate, such as used in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Concomitant administration of some NSAIDs with high dose methotrexate therapy has been reported to elevate and prolong serum methotrexate concentrations, resulting in deaths from severe hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Use caution when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with lower doses of methotrexate as they have been reported to reduce the tubular secretion of methotrexate in an animal model and may enhance its toxicity. Despite potential interactions, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are often receiving concurrent treatment with NSAIDs without apparent problems. However, these doses are lower than those used in psoriasis or malignancy; higher methotrexate doses may lead to unexpected toxicity in combination with NSAIDs. NSAIDs may be continued in patients with RA receiving treatment with methotrexate, although the possibility of increased toxicity has not been fully explored.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as nabumetone could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of nabumetone before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Methylsulfonylmethane, MSM: (Moderate) Patients taking methylsulfonylmethane, MSM have reported increased bruising or blood in the stool. These effects have not been confirmed in published medical literature or during clinical studies. Use methylsulfonylmethane, MSM with caution in patients who are taking drugs with the potential for additive bleeding, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). During an available, published clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis, patients with bleeding disorders or using anticoagulants or platelet inhibiting drugs were excluded from enrollment. Patients who choose to consume methylsulfonylmethane, MSM while receiving NSAIDs should be observed for potential bleeding.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Mifepristone: (Moderate) Mifepristone significantly increased exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2C8/2C9 in interaction studies. Therefore, when mifepristone is used chronically, as in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome, use caution with coadministered CYP2C8/2C9 substrates, including the NSAIDs. Use the lowest doses of the substrate and patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by milnacipran due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding in patients taking milnacipran and NSAIDs.
    Mitoxantrone: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of mitoxantrone, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible. (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Nelarabine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of nelarabine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Neomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides.
    Neostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when given to patients receiving a contrast agents. When possible, withhold NSAID therapy during administration of a contrast agent.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Olmesartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Olopatadine; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Omacetaxine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of omacetaxine and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) when the platelet count is less than 50,000 cells/microliter due to an increased risk of bleeding.
    Oxaprozin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Paclitaxel: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of paclitaxel, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Pamidronate: (Moderate) Monitor renal function during concomitant pamidronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use due to risk for additive nephrotoxicity.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Avoid concurrent or sequential use of pentamidine with nabumetone. Coadministration may increase the risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Closely monitor renal function if coadministration is unavoidable.
    Pentosan: (Moderate) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Pentostatin: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of pentostatin, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Perindopril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Phenoxybenzamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Phentolamine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Photosensitizing agents (topical): (Moderate) Agents that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy. Avoidance of NSAIDs before and during photodynamic therapy may be advisable.
    Physostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Piroxicam: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Platelet Inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of antipyretics, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), may decrease an individual's immunological response to the pneumococcal vaccine. A post-marketing study conducted in Poland using a non-US vaccination schedule (2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age) evaluated the impact of prophylactic oral acetaminophen on antibody responses to Prevnar 13. Data show that acetaminophen, given at the time of vaccination and then dosed at 6 to 8 hour intervals for 3 doses on a scheduled basis, reduced the antibody response to some serotypes after the third dose of Prevnar 13 when compared to the antibody responses of infants who only received antipyretics 'as needed' for treatment. However, reduced antibody responses were not observed after the fourth dose of Prevnar 13 with prophylactic acetaminophen.
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Polyethylene Glycol; Electrolytes; Ascorbic Acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sulfate salt bowel preparation in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Polymyxin B: (Major) The chronic coadministration of systemic polymyxins may increase the risk of developing nephrotoxicity, even in patients who have normal renal function. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk for nephrotoxicity when used concurrently. Monitor patients for changes in renal function if these drugs are coadministered. Since Polymyxin B is eliminated by the kidney, coadministration with other potentially nephrotoxic drugs, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may theoretically increase serum concentrations of either drug.
    Potassium: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Pralatrexate: (Major) Renal elimination accounts for approximately 34% of the overall clearance of pralatrexate. Concomitant administration of drugs that undergo substantial renal clearance, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may result in delayed clearance of pralatrexate.
    Prasugrel: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Probenecid: (Major) The effects of probenecid on the elimination of nabumetone has not been studied, but probenecid decreases the elimination of other NSAIDs such as naproxen, potentially increasing the effectiveness and/or toxicity. Caution should be exercised when administering probenecid with nabumetone; nabumetone and naproxen are chemically similar, and probenecid has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of naproxen.
    Probenecid; Colchicine: (Major) The effects of probenecid on the elimination of nabumetone has not been studied, but probenecid decreases the elimination of other NSAIDs such as naproxen, potentially increasing the effectiveness and/or toxicity. Caution should be exercised when administering probenecid with nabumetone; nabumetone and naproxen are chemically similar, and probenecid has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of naproxen.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of procarbazine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Pyridostigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Quinapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Quinolones: (Moderate) Use quinolones and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concomitantly with caution due to potential increased risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. NSAIDs in combination with very high doses of quinolones have been shown to provoke convulsions in preclinical studies and postmarketing.
    Ramipril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Reserpine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Reteplase, r-PA: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Risedronate: (Minor) Monitor for gastrointestinal adverse events during concurrent use of risedronate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Both medications have been associated with gastrointestinal irritation although data suggest concomitant use introduces little additional risk for adverse effects for most patients.
    Rivaroxaban: (Major) An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving anticoagulants in combination with other agents known to increase the risk of bleeding such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor clinical and laboratory response closely during concurrent use.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Salicylates: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Salsalate: (Major) The concurrent use of aspirin with other NSAIDs should be avoided because this may increase bleeding or lead to decreased renal function. The use of salicylates together with NSAIDs can also lead to additive GI toxicity.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use due to increased risk for bleeding. Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
    Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate; Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous: (Moderate) Concomitant use of medicines with potential to alter renal perfusion or function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy in patients taking sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Moderate) Use caution when prescribing sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid in patients taking concomitant medications that may affect renal function such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure as well as for signs of worsening renal function and loss of diuretic efficacy, including antihypertensive effects, during concomitant spironolactone and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. NSAIDs may cause a dose-dependent reduction in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation, and concomitant diuretic use increases the risk of this reaction. NSAIDs are associated with fluid retention which may blunt the cardiovascular effects of diuretics.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure as well as for signs of worsening renal function and loss of diuretic efficacy, including antihypertensive effects, during concomitant spironolactone and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. NSAIDs may cause a dose-dependent reduction in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation, and concomitant diuretic use increases the risk of this reaction. NSAIDs are associated with fluid retention which may blunt the cardiovascular effects of diuretics.
    Streptokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as streptomycin.
    Sulfinpyrazone: (Moderate) Sulfinpyrazone is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 and may lead to increased plasma levels of NSAIDs. During concurrent therapy, monitor for potential NSAID-induced toxicity, such as GI irritation or bleeding.
    Sulfonylureas: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Sulindac: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may cause additive pharmacodynamic GI effects with cholinesterase inhibitors, leading to gastrointestinal intolerance. Patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. While NSAIDs appear to suppress microglial activity, which in turn may slow inflammatory neurodegenerative processes important for the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no clinical data at this time to suggest that NSAIDs alone or as combined therapy with AD agents result in synergistic effects in AD.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function during coadministration of tacrolimus and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Coadministration may increase the risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Telavancin: (Minor) Concurrent or sequential use of telavancin with drugs that inhibit renal prostaglandins such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may lead to additive nephrotoxicity. Closely monitor renal function and adjust telavancin doses based on calculated creatinine clearance.
    Telbivudine: (Moderate) Drugs that alter renal function such as NSAIDs may alter telbivudine plasma concentrations because telbivudine is eliminated primarily by renal excretion. Monitor renal function before and during telbivudine treatment.
    Telmisartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Temozolomide: (Major) Myelosuppression, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, is the dose-limiting toxicity of temozolomide. Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of temozolomide, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, ASA, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Tenecteplase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Teniposide: (Major) Dose-limiting bone marrow suppression is the most significant toxicity associated with teniposide, and may include thrombocytopenia. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding. Salicylates also displace protein-bound teniposide in fresh human serum to a small but significant extent. Because of the extremely high binding of teniposide to plasma proteins, these small decreases in binding could cause substantial increases in plasma free drug concentrations that could result in potentiation of teniposide toxicity, including bone marrow suppression.
    Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in renal function if tenofovir alafenamide is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with a drug that reduces renal function or competes for active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and other renally eliminated drugs, thus, increasing the risk of adverse reactions.
    Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir, PMPA concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine creatinine, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment.
    Terazosin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure as well as for signs of worsening renal function and loss of diuretic efficacy, including antihypertensive effects, during concomitant nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) and thiazide diuretic use. NSAIDs may cause a dose-dependent reduction in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation, and concomitant diuretic use increases the risk of this reaction. NSAIDs have been shown to reduce the natriuretic effect of thiazide diuretics and are associated with fluid retention which may blunt the cardiovascular effects of diuretics.
    Thioguanine, 6-TG: (Major) Due to the thrombocytopenic effects of thioguanine, an additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant anticoagulants, NSAIDs, platelet inhibitors, including aspirin, strontium-89 chloride, and thrombolytic agents. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Thrombolytic Agents: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Ticlopidine: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure during concomitant beta-blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of beta-blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs.
    Tirofiban: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Tobacco: (Major) Advise patients to avoid smoking tobacco while taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Concomitant use of NSAIDs with tobacco smoking may enhance the risk of gastrointestinal side effects, including peptic ulcer and GI bleeding. Patients using tobacco and NSAIDs concurrently should be monitored closely for GI adverse reactions.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, such as tobramycin.
    Tolazamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolbutamide: (Moderate) NSAIDs may enhance hypoglycemia in diabetic patients via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which indirectly increases insulin secretion. If NSAIDs are administered or discontinued in patients receiving oral antidiabetic agents, patients should be monitored for hypoglycemia or loss of blood glucose control. No clinically significant interaction between sulindac at daily doses of 400 mg and oral hypoglycemic agents has been observed. Sulindac, its sulfide metabolite, and sulfonylureas are highly bound to protein. Sulindac could displace the sulfonylureas, altering hypoglycemic activity. Careful patient monitoring is recommended to ensure that no change in their diabetes medicine dosage is required. A sulfonylurea dose adjustment may be needed, especially if sulindac doses greater than 400 mg daily are used or if the drug combination is used in patients with renal impairment or other metabolic defects that might increase sulindac blood concentrations.
    Tolmetin: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nabumetone with any other NSAID, including COX-2 inhibitors, due to the risk of additive serious NSAID toxicities including but not limited to GI bleeding, GI perforation, or peptic ulcers.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) If a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDs concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. NSAIDs may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDs have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain.
    Tositumomab: (Major) The tositumomab therapeutic regimen frequently causes severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia. The potential benefits of medications that interfere with platelet function and/or anticoagulation should be weighed against the potential increased risk of bleeding and hemorrhage. An additive risk of bleeding may be seen in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs. In addition, large doses of salicylates (>= 3-4 g/day) can cause hypoprothrombinemia, an additional risk factor for bleeding.
    Trandolapril: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by trazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking trazodone concurrently with medications that impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) NSAIDs may decrease the effect of antihypertensive agents through various mechanisms, including renal and peripheral vasoactive pathways.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Monitor for gastrointestinal toxicity during concurrent corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of GI bleeding. The Beers criteria recommends that this drug combination be avoided in older adults; if coadministration cannot be avoided, provide gastrointestinal protection.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urea: (Moderate) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the natriuretic effect of diuretics in some patients. NSAIDS have been associated with an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, which may result in reduced renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and increases in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients taking diuretics and NSAIDS concurrently are at higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. If an NSAID and a diuretic are used concurrently, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of decreased renal function and diuretic efficacy.
    Urokinase: (Moderate) NSAIDs can cause GI bleeding, inhibit platelet aggregation, prolong bleeding time; these pharmacodynamic effects may be increased when administered to patients receiving thrombolytic agents. Patients receiving these drugs concurrently should be monitored closely for bleeding.
    Valacyclovir: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function during coadministration of valacyclovir and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Coadministration may increase the risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Valganciclovir: (Minor) Concurrent use of nephrotoxic agents, such as NSAIDs, with valganciclovir should be done cautiously to avoid additive nephrotoxicity.
    Valsartan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and renal function periodically during concomitant angiotensin II blocker and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. The antihypertensive effect of angiotensin II blockers may be diminished by NSAIDs. In persons who are elderly, volume-depleted, or with compromised renal function, coadministration of angiotensin II blockers and NSAIDs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure; these effects are usually reversible.
    Vancomycin: (Minor) It is possible that additive nephrotoxicity may occur in patients who receive NSAIDs concurrently with other nephrotoxic agents, including vancomycin.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by venlafaxine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of bleeding when coadministering venlafaxine with NSAIDs.
    Verteporfin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of verteporfin with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is necessary due to the risk of decreased verteporfin efficacy. Oxaprozin may additionally worsen photosensitivity. Verteporfin is a light-activated drug. Once activated, local damage to neovascular endothelium results in a release of procoagulant and vasoactive factors resulting in platelet aggregation, fibrin clot formation, and vasoconstriction. Concomitant use of drugs that decrease platelet aggregation like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could decrease the efficacy of verteporfin therapy.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vilazodone due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vilazodone concurrently with NSAIDs and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Voclosporin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of voclosporin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may result in additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor for renal toxicity if concomitant use is required.
    Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding during concomitant platelet inhibitor and chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Concomitant use increases the risk of bleeding.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Voriconazole is a substrate and inhibitor of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9, and may lead to increased plasma levels of some NSAIDs, such as nabumetone. The clinical significance of this potential interaction is unknown. If voriconazole is administered concurrently with nabumetone, monitor for NSAID-related side-effects, such as fluid retention or GI irritation, and adjust the dose of the NSAID, if needed.
    Vortioxetine: (Moderate) Platelet aggregation may be impaired by vortioxetine due to platelet serotonin depletion, possibly increasing the risk of a bleeding complication (e.g., gastrointestinal bleeding, ecchymoses, epistaxis, hematomas, petechiae, hemorrhage) in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Bleeding events related to drugs that inhibit serotonin reuptake have ranged from ecchymosis to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be instructed to monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding while taking vortioxetine concurrently with medications which impair platelet function and to promptly report any bleeding events to the practitioner.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs or symptoms of bleeding during concurrent use of warfarin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).To minimize the potential for GI bleeding, use the lowest effective NSAID dose for the shortest possible duration. If signs or symptoms of bleeding occur, promptly evaluate and treat. Systemic hematological effects may also occur with the use of topical NSAIDs. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and may prolong bleeding time in some patients.
    Zoledronic Acid: (Moderate) Monitor renal function during concomitant zoledronic acid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use due to risk for additive nephrotoxicity.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Avoid nabumetone use during the third trimester of pregnancy (starting at 30 weeks of gestation) due to the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate. If NSAID treatment is deemed necessary between 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy, limit use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. Consider ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid if NSAID treatment extends beyond 48 hours. Discontinue the NSAID if oligohydramnios occurs and follow up according to clinical practice. Use of NSAIDs around 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy may cause fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. Oligohydramnios is often, but not always, reversible with treatment discontinuation. Complications of prolonged oligohydramnios may include limb contractures and delayed lung maturation. In some postmarketing cases of impaired neonatal renal function, invasive procedures such as exchange transfusion or dialysis were required. Observational data regarding embryofetal risks of NSAID use during the first trimester is inconclusive. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of nabumetone in pregnant women.

    It is not known whether nabumetone is excreted in human milk. The principal active metabolite of nabumetone, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-feeding infants from nabumetone, discontinue breast-feeding or discontinue nabumetone, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.[64659] Alternative analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs considered to be usually compatible with breast-feeding by previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam.[27500]

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Nabumetone is a prodrug that requires conversion to an active metabolite (6-MNA) for its pharmacologic activity. 6-MNA competitively inhibits both cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, by blocking arachidonate binding resulting in analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory pharmacologic effects. The enzymes COX-1 and COX-2 catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), the first step of the synthesis prostaglandins and thromboxanes that are involved in rapid physiological responses. COX isoenzymes are also responsible for a peroxidase reaction, which is not affected by NSAIDs. In addition, NSAIDs do not suppress leukotriene synthesis by lipoxygenase pathways. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in almost all tissues, while COX-2 appears to only be constitutively expressed in the brain, kidney, bones, reproductive organs, and some neoplasms (e.g., colon and prostate cancers). COX-1 is responsible for prostaglandin synthesis in response to stimulation by circulating hormones, as well as maintenance of normal renal function, gastric mucosal integrity, and hemostasis. However, COX-2 is inducible in many cells in response to certain mediators of inflammation (e.g., interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharide, mitogens, and reactive oxygen intermediates).•Anti-inflammatory Activity: The anti-inflammatory mechanism of nabumetone is due to decreased prostaglandin synthesis via inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 by the 6-MNA metabolite. It appears that the anti-inflammatory effects may be primarily due to inhibition of the COX-2 isoenzyme. However, COX-1 is expressed at some sites of inflammation. COX-1 is expressed in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis patients, especially the synovial lining, and it is the primary enzyme of prostaglandin synthesis in human bursitis. Laboratory cell assays have shown that 6-MNA has preferential and potent activity on the COX-2 isoenzyme, but 6-MNA does not act selectively clinically. Some inhibition of the COX-1 isoenzyme, found in gastric and renal tissues, also occurs.•Analgesic Activity: Nabumetone is effective in cases where inflammation has caused sensitivity of pain receptors (hyperalgesia). It appears prostaglandins, specifically prostaglandins E and F, are responsible for sensitizing the pain receptors; therefore, nabumetone has an indirect analgesic effect by inhibiting the production of further prostaglandins and does not directly affect hyperalgesia or the pain threshold.•Antipyretic Activity: Nabumetone promotes a return to a normal body temperature set point in the hypothalamus by suppressing the synthesis of prostaglandins, specifically PGE2, in circumventricular organs in and near the hypothalamus. Nabumetone may mask fever in some patients, especially with high or chronic dosing.•GI Effects: Gastrointestinal side effects of nabumetone are primarily contributed to COX-1 inhibition; however, potential role of COX-2 inhibition in the GI tract has not been fully elucidated.•Platelet Effects: The inhibition of platelet aggregation seen with nabumetone is due to dose-dependent inhibition of COX-1 in platelets leading to decreased levels of platelet thromboxane A2 and an increase in bleeding time (see Adverse Reactions). The inhibition of platelet aggregation is reversible within 24 hours of discontinuation of nabumetone. This differs from aspirin, which irreversibly binds to COX-1 in platelets inhibiting this enzyme for the life of the cell.•Renal Effects: In the kidney, prostaglandins, produced by both COX-1 and COX-2, are important regulators of sodium and water reabsorption through PGE2 and of renal function and hemodynamics via PGI2 in response to vasoconstrictive factors (e.g., endothelin-1, a factor that increases peripheral vascular resistance) and through effects on the renin-angiotensin system. In conditions where renal blood flow is dependent upon prostaglandin synthesis, administration of NSAIDs can result in significant decreases in renal blood flow leading to acute renal failure. In addition, alterations in sodium and water reabsorption may worsen in increased blood pressure, which can be significant in selected individuals.•Cardiovascular Effects: Selective inhibition of COX-2 will inhibit the production of PGI2 but not of thromboxane A2, which is produced by COX-1. Thromboxane A2 causes platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and vascular proliferation whereas PGI2 inhibits platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle contraction and proliferation, leukocyte endothelial cell interactions, and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. As PGI2 inhibits platelet aggregation, prevention of its production in the presence of an inducer of platelet aggregation (thromboxane A2) may create an imbalance favoring a pro-thrombotic state (see Adverse Effects). Also, inhibition of PGI2 could lead to sodium and water retention, which may increase blood pressure or worsen heart failure or other cardiovascular morbidity (see Renal Effects). The presence of the thromboxane metabolite, 2,3-dinor thromboxane B2, in urine reflects platelet activation, and platelet activation facilitates atherogenesis. The amount of thromboxane metabolite excretion was higher in male as compared with female mice deficient in LDL receptors. Interestingly, excretion of the thromboxane metabolite by female mice deficient in both LDL and PGI2 receptors exceeded the amount excreted by male mice deficient in both receptors. Thus, in female mice, PGI2 decreases platelet activation. Furthermore, PGI2 appears to reduce oxidative stress only in female mice by serving as an antioxidant. In female mice deficient in both LDL and PGI2 receptors, lipid peroxidation was increased as compared with female mice deficient only in LDL receptors. Male mice deficient in both receptors did not have further lipid peroxidation as compared with male mice deficient only in LDL receptors. In vitro, estrogen has been shown to increase the expression of COX-2 in vascular tissues and to augment PGI2 production. Despite the differences between men and women in regard to age-dependent increases in cardiovascular disease, the mechanisms of atheroprotection in women before the menopause are largely unknown. In mice, estrogen, by acting on estrogen receptor subtype alpha, upregulates prostacyclin (PGI2) production by COX-2 activation.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Nabumetone is administered orally.  Nabumetone is not detectable in the plasma due to rapid hepatic biotransformation to the active metabolite, 6-MNA. Approximately 35% of a nabumetone dose is converted to 6-MNA and most of the remainder to unidentified metabolites.  6-MNA is more than 99% bound to plasma protein. Substantial concentrations of 6-MNA are attained in the synovial fluid. 6-MNA is extensively metabolized by the liver through oxidation and glucuronidation to inactive metabolites that are excreted in the urine. Less than 1% of 6-MNA is excreted in the urine unchanged. 6-MNA has an elimination half-life of approximately 24 hours. Primary excretion is through urine (80%); about 9% is eliminated in the feces.

    Oral Route

    Oral doses of nabumetone are well absorbed from the GI tract. If taken with food, the rate of drug absorption and peak concentrations of the active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), are increased by about one-third, but the extent of conversion of nabumetone to (6-MNA) is not affected. Nabumetone has no enterohepatic recirculation.